Figure 6 of Liu, Mol Vis 2024; 30:200-210.

Figure 6. SFN suppresses TGF-β-induced Smad2/3, AKT, and MAPK activation in HTFs. (A, C) After a 24-h culture followed by a 24-h starvation, cells were incubated with or without SFN (10 µM) for an additional 24 h. Then, TGF-β (5 ng/ml) was added at indicated time points. The protein levels of ERK, phospho-ERK, p38, phospho-p38, ATK, phospho-AKT, Smad2/3, and phospho-Smad2/3 were detected via western blot. Immunoblots resembling those in (A, C) were subjected to densitometric analysis to determine the intensity of the bands corresponding to phosphorylated Smad2/3 (B), AKT (D), ERK (E), or p38 (F). Data are presented as mean ± SD (n=3). *p<0.05 compared to controls. †p<0.05 compared to cells treated with only TGF-β.