Table 6 of Li, Mol Vis 2017; 23:1048-1080.

Table 6. Genes analyzed in experimental myopia studies.

Potential pathway Gene involved in animal models Function related with myopia Refs.
Environmental induced animal model studies:
TGF-beta TGF-beta 1–3, Zfhx1b, BMP2, BMP4, BMP5, and BMP7 Ocular growth Jobling et al. (2004); Jobling et al. (2009); Mathis et al. (2010); Khor et al.(2013); Zhang et al. (2012); Zhang et al. (2013); Zhang et al. (2016); Wang et al. (2011); Li et al. (2015)
Scleral remodeling GAGs, MMPs, TIMPs, BMP2, and TGF-β Scleral remodeling Mcbrien et al. (2000); Siegwart et al.(2005); Li et al.(2015)
Wnt signaling Wnt2b, Fzd5, and β-catenin Ocular growth Ma et al.(2014)
Pax-6 Pax-6 Early embryonic growth Bhat et al.(2004); Ashby et al. (2009); Zhong et al.(2004)
Sonic hedgehog Shh Ocular growth Akamatsu et al.(2001); Escaño et al.(2000); Qian et al.(2009)
Retinoic acid receptor Retinoic acid receptor Ocular growth Seko et al. (1996); Morgan et al.(2004); Wang et al.(2014)
Nitric oxide synthase NOS isoform (iNOS, eNOS bNOS) Nitric oxide synthase Fujii et al. (1998)
Neurotransmitter/neuromodulator Glucagon and its receptors Increased the Camp Feldkaemper et al. (2000);Feldkaemper et al.(2004)
Muscarinic receptor signaling Muscarinic subtypes M1 to M5 Ocular growth Liu et al. (2007)
Retinal dopamine D2R Light adaptation and retinal circadian rhythm Huang et al. (2014)
Cell surface EPHA1, SCUBE3, P2RY1, VIPR2, and NPR3 Ocular growth regulation He et al. (2014) ; Lin et al. (2013)
Cytoskeleton related ANXA2, CAPNS1, and NGEF Axial elongation Lin et al. (2013)
Intracellular signaling BCO2, ZNF185, CYP26B1, RLBP1, and RPE65 Ocular growth regulation He et al. (2014)
Transcription signaling HIF1A and EGR1 Ocular growth regulation He et al. (2014)
Secreted signaling IGF2, NRG1, PT15, FAM180A, MEST, SOSTDC1,TGFBI, CILP, PENK, PTX3, ANGPTL7, BMP2, BMP4, TGFB2, TGFB3, and IL18 Ocular growth regulation He et al. (2014) ; Lin et al. (2013)
Matricellular signaling NOV, THBS1, CYR61, CTGF,and TNC Ocular growth regulation He et al. (2014) ; Lin et al. (2013)
MPs/TIMPs signaling ADAMTSL3, TIMP1, TIMP3, ADAMTS5, and MMP14 Ocular growth regulation He et al. (2014) ; Lin et al. (2013)
Extracellular matrix COL6A6, COL12A1, OGN, MXRA5, and NYX Ocular growth regulation He et al. (2014)
Genetic induced animal model studies
Collagen synthesis P3h2 Related with the collagen synthesis in sclera Hudson et al. (2015)
Soni hedgehog Lrp2 An endocytic receptor Veth et al.(2011); Collery et al.(2014)
Transcriptional regulatory Egr-1 A transcription factor Schippert et al. (2007)