Figure 5. TNF-α-mediated NF-ҡB activation is not involved in VEGF upregulation in human RPE cells. A: Western blots of p-p65, total p65, and β-actin. B: Real-time PCR of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in RPE cells pretreated with Bay 11–7082 (5 µM) or control dimethyl
sulfoxide (DMSO) for 30 min before incubation with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α; 20 ng/ml) for an additional (A) 5, 15, or 30 min or (B) 12 h (***p<0.001 versus PBS of control; †††p<0.001 versus PBS of Bay 11–7082).