Figure 5 of Baek, Mol Vis 2016; 22:1015-1023.

Figure 5. SP-mediated Akt/GSK-3β activation occurs through the NK1R. A: CP (neurokinin 1-receptor (NK1R) antagonist, CP-96345) was used as a pretreatment, and substance P (SP) was added to cells for 15 min. The level of phospho-Akt and phospho-glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β was evaluated with western blotting. B, C: Phospho-Akt and phospho-GSK-3β protein expression levels relative to total Akt and GSK-3β. Quantification was performed by representing expression levels relative to that of the H2O2-treated cells. D: An Akt1/2 kinase inhibitor (A6730) was added before the SP treatment, and cell viability was determined with the WST-1 assay. The untreated control was set as 100%, and cell viability was expressed relative to the activity of the untreated control. P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant (*p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001). The data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation (SD) of three independent experiments.