Figure 4. qPCR analysis of the transcription of the ES-GFP plasmid and the effect on VEGF, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xl. Endostatin (A), VEGF (B) Bcl-2(C), and Bcl-xl (D) mRNA levels were measured via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) 48 h after ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD)-mediated
embryonic stem (ES) gene delivery. The levels of endostatin mRNA were significantly higher following cationic microbubble
(CMB) delivery of the ES gene compared with the neutral microbubble (NMB), liposome, and control groups. VEGF, Bcl-2, and
Bcl-xl mRNA levels were significantly lower following CMB delivery of the ES gene compared with the NMB, liposome, and control
groups (* p<0.05 relative to the control and CMB groups, #p<0.01 relative to the control; n=6 per group).