Figure 4 of Russo, Mol Vis 2015; 21:718-729.

Figure 4. Intravitreal treatment with forskolin/homotaurine/L-carnosine increases Akt activation and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) phosphorylation in the retina subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. Intravitreal treatment with the tested association of drugs (100 μM forskolin + 0.058 μM/eye homotaurine + 0.039 μM/eye L-carnosine) significantly enhanced Akt phosphorylation on Ser473 typically reported after 1 h of reperfusion (A) and induced GSK-3β phosphorylation on Ser9 (B). Histograms show the results of densitometric analysis normalized on the loading control from five independent experiments (mean ± SEM; *p<0.05, **p<0.01 versus vehicle; Student’s test; C: control non-ischemic retina; I/R: ischemic retina; Hom: homotaurine; Carn: L-carnosine; FSK: forskolin; MW: molecular weight).