Figure 4. In vivo and in vitro administration of rGal-1 modulates proinflammatory mediators release during ocular inflammation: IL-1β (A), IL-6 (B), and MCP-1 (C) in ocular tissues (in vivo). Interleukin-8 (IL-8) (D), IL-6 (E), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1; F) in ARPE-19 cells (in vitro). Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM (pg/ml) from the eye homogenates (n = 5) or cell supernatants.
* p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001 versus control; #p<0.05, ##p<0.01, ###p<0.001 versus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or LPS-stimulated cells. (G) Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) immunofluorescence in ARPE-19 cells showed decreased COX-2 immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm after
recombinant galectin-1 (rGal-1) treatment in LPS-stimulated cells after 24 h. Bars: 10 µm. H: Densitometric analysis of COX-2. The data are presented as the mean ± SEM of the densitometric index (arbitrary units [a.u.])
of cells from three independent experiments. ***p<0.001 versus control; ###p<0.001 versus LPS.