**Figure 5. **VEGF-A_{165}b decreased the number of monocytes that adhered to RPE cells induced by TNF-α. **A**: Fluorescent micrographs from different treatments showing the adherence of calcein-labeled THP-1 (green) to RPE cells. **B**: The number of fluorescent-labeled THP-1 that adhered to the RPE cell monolayer. Data are expressed as mean ± standard error
of the mean (SEM); three independent experiments, each from six replicate wells; **p<0.01 compared with control, ##p<0.01
and #p<0.05 compared with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-treated alone. Scale bar = 200 µm.