Figure 4. TNF induces ICAM expression through VEGF induction.A: Immunoblot and (B) quantitation showing the effect of VEGF-A165b and ZM323881, a selective inhibitor of VEGFR-2 on TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression and (C, D) the inhibitory effect of VEGF-A165b was neutralized with an anti-VEGF-A165b antibody. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was normalized to α-tubulin and expressed as a percentage of the control
group. Data are expressed as the mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) of three independent experiments; ***p<0.001 compared
with the control, ###p<0.001 compared with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α treated alone, ns was not significant when compared with TNF-α treated alone.