Figure 6. Suppressive effect of astaxanthin on glutamate-induced DNA oxidative damage. Representative fluorescence microscopy of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole
(DAPI) and 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) staining at 72 h under glutamate-induced retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death.
A: Blue staining is DAPI-positive cells. B: Green staining is 8-OHdG-positive staining cells. C: Merged image of A and B. DAPI(+)/8-OHdG(-) living cells (white arrow) and DAPI(+)/8-OHdG(+) DNA oxidative damage cells (yellow arrow) are detectable.
Each value represents mean ± standard deviation (SD; n=6). *, ** indicate p<0.05 or 0.01 (Wilcoxon rank-sum test).