Figure 4. For all panels, rMC-1 cells were grown in normal glucose (NG) or high glucose (HG) and transfected with an IRS-1 plasmid or
a mutated IRS-1 plasmid and treated with TNF-α or TNF-α+mutant with retinal cell lysates used for all experiments. A: The actions of TNF-α on levels of SOCS3. B: TNF-α requires IRS-1Ser307 to regulate IRTyr960. *p<0.05 versus NG non-treated; #p<0.05 versus HG non-treated; $p<0.05 versus HG TNF-α. n=5 for all groups. Data are mean±standard
error of the mean (SEM).