Figure 3. For all panels, rMC-1 cells were grown in normal glucose (NG) or high glucose (HG) and transfected with an IRS-1 plasmid or
a mutated IRS-1 plasmid and treated with TNF-α or TNF-α+mutant with retinal cell lysates used for all experiments. Data show
that TNF-α regulates Akt (A) through IRS-1Ser307, leading to decreased cleaved caspase 3 (B) when IRS-1Ser307 is mutated. *p<0.05 versus NG non-treated; #p<0.05 versus HG non-treated; $p<0.05 versus HG TNF-α. n=5 for all groups. Data
are mean±standard error of the mean (SEM).