Figure 2 of Deng, Mol Vis 2014; 20:1243-1252.

Figure 2. Effects of osmoprotectants on MMP expression. Suppressive effects of L-carnitine, erythritol and betaine on the mRNA expression of MMP-13 (A), MMP-9 (B) , MMP-2 (C), MMP-3 (D) and MMP-7 (E) were observed in primary HCECs exposed to hyperosmotic medium (450 mOsM). Each bar represents mean±SD of 4 independent experiments. *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001, compared with 312 mOsM; ^^P<0.01, ^^^P<0.001, compared with 450 mOsM.