Figure 4 of Mansoor, Mol Vis 2013; 19:25-38.

Figure 4. The effects of chrysene (Chry) on production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) in MIO-M1 cells. A: The MIO-M1 cells exposed to 1,000 μM chrysene, 500 μM chrysene, and 300 μM chrysene had significantly higher ROS/RNS compared to MIO-M1 cells treated with the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-equivalent (***p<0.001, ***p<0.001, **p<0.01, respectively). The untreated MIO-M1 cells, 100-μM-chrysene-treated cells, and DMSO-equivalent-treated cells showed low levels of ROS/RNS production. B: Cells that were pretreated 24 h with 80 μM lipoic acid (LA) and had 500 μM chrysene added to the cultures for 24 h (Chyr 500 μM +LA 80 μM) showed ROS/RNS levels similar to the DMSO- equivalent-treated cultures showing a protective effect of the LA against chrysene induced ROS/RNS production. Assays were performed in triplicate and the experiments repeated three times. Values are mean±standard error mean (SEM).