Figure 2. Resveratrol suppresses vascular endothelial growth factor levels in choroidal vascular endothelial cells at hypoxia. A: Basal levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in choroidal vascular endothelial cells (control) and after hypoxic
induction using cobalt chloride. B: VEGF levels in hypoxic choroidal vascular endothelial cells after the treatment of increasing doses of resveratrol (2–12
μg/ml). The x-axis represents the treatment conditions. The y-axis represents the VEGF levels in pg/ml. ‘R’ represents the
resveratrol treatment in escalated doses. A dose-dependent decrease in the VEGF level is noted. Asterisks indicate significant
difference compared with corresponding hypoxic cells (*p<0.01; n=3; error bars±standard error of mean [SEM]).