Figure 2. Berberine inhibited leukocyte-mediated human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) apoptosis in vitro. A: Molecular structure of berberine hydrochloride is shown. B: Dot plots represent human retinal endothelial cell (HREC) apoptosis caused by leukocytes. HRECs and leukocytes were pretreated
with various concentrations of berberine (0–100 μM), and subsequently cultured in the H+D coculture system. C: Graphical summary of HREC apoptosis from data in 2B is shown (n=3). * p<0.001 compared to the non-treated group; † indicates p<0.001 compared to the 50 μM berberine group. D: Berberine inhibited leukocyte adhesion to HRECs in high-glucose medium. * p<0.05 compared to the non-treated group.