Figure 5. Lithium chloride regulates inflammatory cytokine production in vitro. Relative messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels (fold
changes) of interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were examined with real-time polymerase
chain reaction (PCR) in lithium chloride– (LiCl-) versus sodium chloride (NaCl)–treated murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells
(A–D) and mouse bone marrow–derived neutrophils (E–H) before and at 6 h after Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) stimulation. The protein levels of IL-10 and TNF-α were examined with enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) in
LiCl- versus NaCl-treated murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells (I) and mouse bone marrow–derived neutrophils (J) at 6 h after PA stimulation. Data are the mean±standard error of the mean (SEM) and represent three individual experiments
(n=5). *, p<0.05; **, p<0.01; ***, p<0.001.