Figure 3. Low heparan sulfate levels in the aqueous humor in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. A: Multiple heparan sulfate (HS) core proteins were detected in the aqueous humor from a patient with cataract. B: The HS concentration was reduced in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR; mean age, 40.3 years; range, 27–60 years; n=16)
compared to non-PDR (mean age, 67.0 years; range, 47–77 years; n=7) or controls (CONT; mean age, 69.6 years; range, 45–80
years; n=15). C: The VEGF level was increased in some patients with non-PDR and PDR. D: No correlation was found between levels of VEGF and those of HS among PDR samples (R2=0.001, p=0.903). Statistics are displayed as mean±standard error of the mean (SEM) next to the plotting of relevant data
in B and C.