Figure 7. Hypothetic diagram of high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1)-mediated upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor
(VEGF)-A in retinal ganglion cell (RGC)-5 cells in response to advanced glycation end products (AGEs) stimulation. The AGEs
cause a rise in intracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS), which results in the release of HMGB1 into the extracellular
space. Extracellular HMGB1 augments the signal via RAGE or TLR and mediates secretion of VEGF-A through the JNK signaling
pathway, which was blocked by the HMGB1 inhibitor glycyrrhizin (GZ).