Figure 3 of Choi, Mol Vis 2012; 18:1010-1020.

Figure 3. Pirfenidone inhibited transforming growth factor- β1 (TGF-β1)-induced expression of extracellular matrix. Components in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) cells. Cells were incubated in the absence or presence of SB202190 (10 μmol/l), hydroxyfasudil (10 μmol/l), or varying doses of pirfenidone for 1 h and then treated with TGF-β1 (10 μg/l) for an additional 48 h. The supernatants were assayed with ELISA for the level of collagen type I (A) or fibronectin (B). Control: untreated, PFD: pirfenidone, fasudil: hydroxyfasudil. Samples significantly different from the control sample treated with DMSO were indicated with symbols (*, n=5, error bar indicates standard deviation [SD], p<0.05; **, p<0.01; ***, p<0.001).