Table 1 of Whitmire, Mol Vis 2011; 17:300-308.

Table 1. Summary of reports that examined growth factors in relation to various neuronal cells under diabetic condition.

GF Model Summary Cell type References
Insulin STZ Insulin provides trophic support for retinal neurons via PI 3-kinase/Akt-dependent pathway. Neuronal/RGC [6,17,37]
IGF-1 STZ Systemic IGF-I reduced neuroretinal cell death. Photoreceptors [51]
VEGF STZ Elevated VEGF causes vascular dysfunction, which was associated with neuronal death. Neuronal [21,102]
PEDF STZ PEDF prevented neuronal derangements and restored electroretinal gram function. Neuronal [103]
BDNF STZ BDNF provides trophic support for retinal neurons and amacrine cells. Neuronal/amacrine [100,101]
NGF Human/STZ/culture Restoring NGF level and signal prevented retinal neuronal/RGC death. Neuronal/RGC [10,13,15,16,91]