Figure 2. Energy diagrams of
Two-Photon Autofluorescence (TPAF) and Coherent Anti-Stokes
Raman Scattering (CARS). A: Energy diagram of TPAF, in
which an autofluorescent molecule simultaneously absorbs two
optical infrared photons (E2p).
After internal-crossing (IC), in which some energy is lost, the
fluorescent molecule will emit a fluorescence photon (Eem).
B: Energy diagram of CARS, in which two optical photons
with the photon energy difference (Epump - EStokes)
equaling to the vibrational energy of a molecule (EΩ)
is used to excite the vibrational motion of the molecule. A
third photon (Eprobe) is subsequently used to
interact with the vibtational motion of the molecule, resulting
in the emision of an energy-upshifted photon (ECARS).
C: A schematic diagram illustrating the CARS process. The
pump and the Stokes photons are simultaneously exciting the
lipid molecule, with the energy difference between the two
photons equal to the vibrational energy of the molecule bond (EΩ).
Subsequent interaction of the probe photon coherently interacts
with the vibrational motion of the molecule to generate a
release of the CARS photon.