Figure 8. Nε-(3-formyl-3,4-dehydropiperidino)lysine (FDP-lysine) accumulation is associated with changes in angiogenic and inflammatory
gene expression. Bar graphs showing the concentration-dependent induction of (A) vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), (B) interleukin-6 (IL-6), and (C) tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNAs following exposure of human Muller (MIO-M1) cells to FDP-lysine human serum albumin
(HSA). mRNA levels were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR using gene-specific primers and normalized with β-actin as
the internal control.