Figure 6. Involvement of adenosine
signaling in the endogenous osmotic volume regulation of retinal glial
cells in mice. Adenosine, which is extracellularly formed from AMP by
the action of CD73, activates A1 receptors of Müller cells.
Activation of the receptors triggers (via intracellular formation of
cAMP) the opening of potassium and chloride channels in the Müller cell
membrane. The ion efflux from the cells equalizes the osmotic gradient
across the plasma membrane and thus prevents cellular swelling under
hypotonic conditions. Different steps of the signaling cascade can be
blocked by specific antagonists (shown in white), resulting in cellular
swelling when the extracellular osmolarity decreases.