Table 5 of
Mansergh, Mol Vis 2004;
Table 5. Confirmed genes: Nine month Sparctm1cam129Sv/Ev/Mf1Gpi-bb lenses versus Mf1Gpi-bb controls
This table lists significant genes confirmed by PCR defined by accession number and identity. The mean fold change values from the arrays are given as are the mouse chromosomal locations (c/s mouse) where they are known. Where genes of known function have been confirmed by PCR an overview of gene function is provided (comments with OMIM number) and possible roles for these gene in the lens and cataractogenesis are suggested (possible role in Sparc null cataract).
Unigene full length Accession accession c/s Fold Possible role in number Identity number mouse change Comments Sparc null cataract --------- ------------------------ ----------- ----- ------ ----------------------- ------------------- BG075211 Adfp adipose NM_007408.2 4 6.66 novel 50-kD Role unknown differentiation related membrane-associated protein Mm.381 protein whose mRNA levels are induced rapidly and maximally after triggering adipocyte differentiation 103195 BG086439 Anxa2 annexin A2 Mm.584 NM_007585.2 9 2.63 ANX2 is an autocrine Role unknown factor that may enhance could be involved osteoclast formation in resorption of and bone resorption abnormal tissue 151740 by cellular components of the immune system BG074814 C1qa; Complement NM_007572.1 4 7.42 C1q is composed of 3 Complement can component 1, q different species of mediate clotting, subcomponent, alpha chains, called A, B, chemotaxis, polypeptide Mm.370 and C (see above for vascular other 2) C1q binds to permeability, immunoglobulin phagocytosis, and complexes with cell lysis  resulting serial Cell lysis is activation of C1r noted at later (enzyme), C1s stages of Sparc (proenzyme) and the null cataract other 8 components of [5,6,13,16] complement 120550 BG087868 C1qb complement NM_009777.1 4 8.80 C1q, the first See above, C component 1, q subcomponent of C1, has Complement can subcomponent, beta a complicated 18-chain mediate clotting, polypeptide Mm.2570 structure: 6 A, 6 B, chemotaxis, and 6 C chains vascular 120570 permeability, phagocytosis, and cell lysis . Cell lysis is noted at later stages of Sparc null cataract [5,6,13,16] AW547306 C1qg complement NM_007574.1 4 5.27 Complement deficiency See below for component 1, q is associated with complement B subcomponent, gamma systematic lupus chain Complement polypeptide (aka erythromatosis can mediate complement component 120575 clotting, C1q, C chain) Mm.3453 chemotaxis, vascular permeability, phagocytosis and cell lysis . Cell lysis is noted at later stages of Sparc null cataract [5,6,13,16] BG087171 C1r complement NM_023143.1 6 5.29 C1 is a complex of Complement can component 1, r C1q, C1r, and C1s, mediate clotting, subcomponent Mm.24276 activated by complexing chemotaxis, with antigen or an vascular acidic macromolecule permeability, (e.g.DNA) C1r phagocytosis, and deficiency leads to cell lysis . lupus like Cell lysis is symptoms/reduced noted at later resistance to stages of Sparc infection null cataract 216950 [5,6,13,16] BG087429 C3; Complement component NM_009778.1 17 3.99 C3 is an acute phase Complement can 3 Mm.19131 reactant; increased mediate clotting, synthesis of C3 is chemotaxis, induced during acute vascular inflammation permeability, 120700 phagocytosis, and cell lysis . Cell lysis is noted at later stages of Sparc null cataract [5,6,13,16] BG087410 Cd9 CD9 antigen Mm.2956 NM_007657.2 6 2.77 CD9, a member of the Upregulation may transmembrane-4 play a role in superfamily, interacts abnormal tissue with integrins and remodelling other membrane during proteins, and may cataractogenesis participate in cell migration and adhesion. CD9 is important in the gamete fusion process at fertilization 143030 BG087382, Ctsd; Cathepsin D NM_009983.2 7 9.95 Cathepsin D is one of May be BG087383 Mm.231395 the lysosomal upregulated as a proteinases result of 116840 increased degradative requirements of stressed cells C79876 EST none 3 -5.78 also downregulated in 9 Function unknown month Sparctm1Cam129Sv/Ev lenses BG087124 Fcgr3 Fc receptor, IgG, NM_010188.2 1 9.32 CD16 is included in the Upregulation of low affinity III (aka zeta natural killer components of the CD16) Mm.22119 cell receptor complex. immune system Mutations cause could contribute increased to the ocular susceptibility to inflammation, infection 146740 tissue destruction, and re-organization that occurs in Sparc null lenses at advanced stages of cataract BG072156 Fgls-pending fragilis NM_025378.1 7 7.62 interferon induced Upregulation of Mm.141021 transmembrane protein, components of the 605579 immune system could contribute to the ocular inflammation, tissue destruction, and re-organization that occurs in Sparc null lenses at advanced stages of cataract BG085662 Fn1 fibronectin 1 BC004724.1 1 22.28 Roles in cell Fn1 is a Mm.193099 adhesion, morphology, component of the and surface lens capsule architecture. Absence TGF-beta has may cause loss of effects on contact inhibition of expression levels movement in transformed of Sparc and Fn1, cells Most cells suggesting some depend on fibronectin degree of for binding to co-ordinated collagen 135600 regulation. Degraded fibronectin is a potent monocyte chemoattractant  BG088898 Gp49a; Glycoprotein 49 A NM_008147.1 10 22.95 membrane protein, low Role unknown, Mm.196617 homology to human homology may leukocyte suggest immune immunoglobulin-like system function receptor AW550167, Hba-a1 hemoglobin NM_008218.1 11 -7.00 Major mouse alpha Downregulation AW551388, alpha, adult chain 1 hemoglobin (2 identical may disrupt any BG073468, Mm.196110 genes) MGI:85168. or all normal BG073469, Possible roles in functions in the BG074904, normal lenses lens, leading to BG086243, structural (may act as opacity BG086422 a crystallin), may have Downregulation a role in lens iron or also noted in oxygen metabolism, or human cataract may be pro-apoptotic   Hba-x: Hemoglobin X, NM_010405.2 11 n/a Mouse embryonic globin Expressed in alpha-like embryonic homologous to normal lenses chain in Hba complex hemoglobin zeta in man , see Hba-a1 Mm.141758 142310. not detected on array, but checked as other globins downregulated Hbb-b1 hemoglobin beta, NM_008220.2 7 n/a not detected on array, Expressed in major chain GeneID: but checked as other normal lenses 15129 globins downregulated. , see Hba-a1 Homologous to Cataracts have hemoglobin delta in been associated man with sickle cell anemia and thalassemia [37,38] Hbb-b2 hemoglobin, beta NM_016956.2 7 -10.81 The alpha and beta Expressed in adult minor chain loci determine the normal lenses Mm.233825 structure of the 2 , see Hba-a1 types of polypeptide chains in adult hemoglobin, Hb A. Hbb-b2 differs by nine amino acids from beta adult major chain (Hbb-b1)  141900 Hbb-y hemoglobin Y, NM_008221.2 7 n/a not detected on array Expressed in beta-like embryonic but checked as other normal lenses chain Mm.35830 globins downregulated  see Hba-a1 BG070071 Hspb1; Heat shock protein NM_013560.1 5 5.56 Heat-shock proteins Involved in the 1 (aka HEAT-SHOCK (HSPs) belong to the stress response PROTEIN 27; HSP27) stress protein family, probably Mm.13849 induced in response to upregulated as a environmental result of challenges/ increased cell developmental stress transitions HSP27 protein shows sequence similarity to mammalian alpha-crystallins (known chaperones) 602195 BG070106 Lcn2 lipocalin 2 Mm.9537 AK002932.1 2 9.60 associated with Upregulation of neutrophil gelatinase, this gene may be may function as a involved in modulator of cataract induced inflammation, induces immune reaction, apoptosis in a wide increased variety of leukocytes, apoptosis, or participates in the abnormal iron antibacterial iron metabolism depletion strategy of the innate immune system. 600181 BG064176 Lgals3: Lectin, NM_010705.1 14 5.18 may play an important Upregulation of galactose binding, role in both innate and components of the soluble 3 Mm.2970 adaptive immunity by immune system contributing to could contribute phagocytic clearance of to the ocular microorganisms and inflammation, apoptotic cells  tissue destruction and re-organization that occurs in Sparc null lenses at advanced stages of cataract BG067456 Lyzs lysozyme Mm.45436 NM_017372.2 10 13.38 catalyzes the Upregulation of hydrolysis of certain components of the mucopolysaccharides of immune system bacterial cell walls. could contribute Mutations associated to the ocular with increased inflammation, resistance to infection tissue or renal amyloidosis destruction and 153450 re-organization that occurs in Sparc null lenses at advanced stages of cataract BG073671 Mfge8 milk fat NM_008594.1 7 7.67 Lactadherin is Role unknown, if globule-EGF factor 8 expressed by mammary degraded, may protein. (aka epithelial cells as a contribute to lactadherin). Mm.1451 cell surface protein, plaque formation secreted as part of the in abnormal milk fat globule lenses membrane Main constituent of aortic medial amyloid is a 50 aa peptide derived from a domain of lactadherin 602281 BG087418 Ms4a6d NM_026835.1 19 5.84 Family of proteins Increasing membrane-spanning related to the porosity of the 4-domains, subfamily A, B-cell-specific antigen lens capsule may member 6D Mm.170657 CD20 They may result in represent proteins alterations in functioning either osmotic status, directly as resulting in ligand-gated ion observed cell channels or as swelling  essential components of Upregulation of such channels ion channel MGI:1931900 components may represent an attempt to compensate for this BG085244 Musculus IMAGE: 1064756 AY032898.1 7 3.09 intermediate filament Upregulation may plectin mRNA, 3'UTR binding protein and may result in further Mm.234912 provide mechanical perturbations in strength to cells and cell adhesion, tissues by acting as a migration and cross linking element morphology of the cytoskeleton Mutations cause muscular dystrophy with epidermolysis bullosa simplex 601282 BG087762 P2rx4 purinergic NM_011026.1 5 5.25 Activation of P2X Increasing receptor P2X, receptors leads to the porosity of the ligand-gated ion channel opening of nonselective lens capsule may 4 Mm.27861 cation channels that result in are permeable to Na+, alterations in K+, and, in some cases, osmotic status, Ca(2+) 600846 resulting in observed cell swelling  Upregulation of ion channel regulators may represent an attempt to compensate for this BG072730 Ppgb protective protein NM_008906.2 2 3.12 mutations cause Role unknown for beta-galactosidase neuraminidase Mm.7046 deficiency with beta-galactosidase deficiency 256540 BG088310 Psap prosaposin NM_011179.1 10 3.27 Lysosomal prosaposin Upregulation may Mm.233010 (65 kDa) is a reflect increased nonenzymic protein that lysosomal is transported to the degradation lysosomes in a mannose requirements by 6-phosphate-independent stressed cells manner  BG084583 Rgs10 regulator of NM_026418.1 7 4.76 RGS proteins negatively Upreguation G-protein signalling 10 regulate signaling reflects changes Mm.18635 pathways involving in signalling 7-transmembrane patterns brought receptors and about by heterotrimeric G increasing proteins 602856 abnormality BG074704 Rnf128 ring finger NM_023270.3 X 5.23 type I transmembrane Upregulation protein 128 Mm.27764 zinc RING finger implies higher protein in the levels of endocytic pathway that ubiquitinated functions as an E3 proteins targeted ubiquitin ligase for degradation, Expression of RNF128 implies cells are limits stressed activation-induced IL2 and IL4 production by T lymphocytes 300439 BG075648 Serping1 serine (or NM_0097760.1 2 4.68 C1 inhibitor is a Upregulation of cysteine) proteinase plasma protein involved components of the inhibitor, clade G, in the regulation of immune system member 1 Mm.38888 the complement cascade could contribute C1 inhibitor regulates to the ocular the first component of inflammation, complement (C1) by tissue inhibition of the destruction and proteolytic activity of re-organization its subcomponents C1r that occurs in and C1s 606860 Sparc null lenses at advanced stages of cataract BG064802, Sparc secreted acidic NM_009242.1 11 -12.60 knocked out in Sp mix Positive control BG078305, cysteine rich mice, positive control BG072874 glycoprotein Mm.35439 for these arrays BG070062 Spp1: Secreted NM_009263.1 3 40.65 aka ostepontin. Role Upregulation of phosphoprotein 1 in immunosurveillance, components of the Mm.285918 role of colocalization immune system with CD44 in migration, could contribute cell fusion, and to the ocular resorption in inflammation, osteoclasts plays an tissue important role in tumor destruction and growth through the re-organization enhancement of that occurs in angiogenesis in vivo Sparc null lenses LocusID: 20750 at advanced stages of cataract BG072750 Tgfbi transforming NM_009369.1 13 13.05 mutations cause corneal Sparc and Tgfbi growth factor, beta dystrophy 601692 are known to induced, also known as induce each beta-IG-H3; BIGH3 other's Mm.14455 expression under different circumstances  Array studies using glioma cell lines suggest Tgfbi may be induced by Sparc  BG074617 Tgm2 transglutaminase NM_009373.2 2 3.52 Tgm2 leads to formation Upregulation 2, C polypeptide of a cross-linked implies the Mm.18843 protein scaffold in presence of a cells undergoing greater than apoptosis. This usual number of stabilizes cell dying cells membranes (prevent Sparc in release of harmful differentiating intracellular cartilage is components). TGM2 is known to be a also the autoantigen in major target for celiac disease transglutaminase 190196 crosslinking  BG076072 Ugt1a1; UDP-glucuronosyl NM_013701.1 1 6.55 induced in transgenic Upregulation transferase 1 family, mice, functions to implies the need member 1 Mm.42472 eliminate steroids, to eliminate heme metabolites and greater than environmental toxins normal levels of 191740 toxins or toxic metabolites, suggesting increased cell stress